For we who are New England sports fans, the Smug™ yet lies heavy on the air, following back to back World Championships for the Boston Red Sox, and New England Patriots. Having worked for the latter organization forty years ago when the team couldn’t get a game on TV, I have to tell you. This is a lot more fun.
The winners of Superbowl LII received $112,000 each for winning the Big Game. Losing players were paid $56,000, apiece. Not bad for a single day’s work, but it raises an interesting question. Who is the highest paid athlete, of all time?
On December 13, 2017 Forbes Magazine answers as follows:
“The Highest-Paid Athletes of All-Time”
1. Michael Jordan Career earnings: $1.85 billion (2017 dollars)
2. Tiger Woods: $1.7 billion
3. Arnold Palmer: $1.4 billion
4. Jack Nicklaus Career earnings: $1.2 billion
5. Michael Schumacher: $1 billion
6. Phil Mickelson: $815 million
7. (tie) Kobe Bryant: $800 million
7. (tie) David Beckham: $800 million
9. Floyd Mayweather: $785 million
10. Shaquille O’Neal: $735 million
Seems Forbes missed one guy who earned nearly half-again, as the top ten. Combined.
The earliest chariots came around some 4,000 years ago, with the invention of the spoke-wheel. As a weapon of war, the use of these open, two-wheeled carriages came to a peak in 1300BC, around the Battle of Kadesh. Chariots lost their military importance as horses were bred to become bigger and stronger, able to carry a rider in the control position. The vehicle was gone as a weapon of war by the 1st century AD, but chariot races remained popular in Byzantine times, until the 6th century.
Chariots go back to the earliest days of the Roman Republic, coming down from the ancient Greeks, by way of the Etruscan empire. The mythical abduction of the Sabine women was carried out, while the Sabine men watched a chariot race. While Romans never used them as weapons of war, chariots were used in triumphal processions, pulled by teams of horses, dogs, tigers and even ostriches.
It was the racetrack, the circus, where the sport of chariot racing put the Fanatic in fans. None greater, than the Circus Maximus.
What the Greeks saw as an opportunity for talented amateurs to rise within their chosen sport, the Romans regarded as entertainment. A class of professional drivers, rose to meet the demand. There were four teams or “factions” (factiones), distinguished by the color of their outfit: Red, Blue, Green and White.
Modern sport has seen its share of fan passion rising to violence, but the worst “soccer hooligan” fades to docility, compared with the crowd come to watch the chariot races. In the year 69, Emperor Vitellius had commoners put to death for talking trash about the Blue faction. Ten years later, a fan threw himself on the funeral pyre, of his favorite driver. The week-long outbreak of violence known as the Nika Riots of 532 cost the lives of some 30,000 spectators. It all started, over a chariot race.
Mercedes Benz Stadium in Atlanta, home of Super Bowl LIII, has a rated capacity of 71,000 spectators, expandable to 75,000. The Circus Maximus measured 2,037-feet long by 387-feet wide and seated as many as a quarter-million. Come race day, the city was all but deserted.
Twelve chariots would enter each race, three from each faction. Golden-tipped dolphins were tipped over, to count the laps. Each race ran seven.
A raised median called a spina ran down the center, adorned with stone statuary and obelisks. Ganging up to drive opposing handlers into the stone median or the stands, whipping opponents and even hauling them out of their chariots was not only permitted, it was encouraged.
Tales of poisoned horses and drivers were not unheard of. Lead tablets and amulets were inscribed with curses, spiked through with nails and thrown from the stands. One such curse reads:
I call upon you, oh demon, whoever you are, to ask that from this hour, from this day, from this moment, you torture and kill the horses of the green and white factions and that you kill and crush completely the drivers Calrice, Felix, Primulus, and Romanus, and that you leave not a breath in their bodies.
Racing chariots were as light as possible and extremely flimsy, to increase speed. With no suspension, even a bump could throw a driver into the path of oncoming teams. Clogs were built into lattice floors, to hold the driver’s feet. Teams of two (biga), three (triga) and four (quadriga) horses were common, but teams as large as six were not unheard of. Though it was rare, ten-horse teams were known to take the field.
While Greek drivers held the reins in their hands, Roman charioteers wrapped them around the waist. Unsurprisingly, any driver thrown out would be dragged to death or trampled, unless able to cut himself free.
Crashes were frequent and spectacular, often killing or maiming driver and horse, alike. Such wrecks were called naufragia, a Latin word translating as”shipwreck”. As many as forty chariots crashed in one catastrophic wreck, near Delphi.
It is often said to “Beware the old man in a land where men die young“. The Roman countryside was dotted with the graves of twenty-year old chariot drivers. Yet, on this day in 138, the Spanish driver Gaius Appuleius Diocles was only midway through a 24-year career, spanning 4,257 races. He won 1,462 of them and placed in another 1,438.
Diocles wasn’t the “winningest” driver in Rome, though he did own an extremely rare ducenarius, a horse which had won at least 200 races. Flavius Scorpus scored 2,048 victories before being killed in a wreck at the age of twenty-seven. Pompeius Muscosus won 3,559. Diocles was the master of the “come from behind” victory. Crowds loved it. In his 24 years, Diocles went from White to Green to Red factions amassing an impressive 35,863,120 sesterces, over the course of a long career.
It was enough to keep the entire city of Rome in grain for a year, equivalent to $15 Billion, today. Not bad for a guy whose name indicates he probably started out a slave, freed by a guy named Gaius Appuleius.